Below are the recipes presented by Diana Schmitt McCall of the Black Mountain Community Garden at the 2014 Spring Conference in a class called Easy Kimchi at Home. Enjoy!
It’s a Wrap!
Flatbreads from around the World
Injera–traditional Ethiopian flatbread
- 1½ cups ground teff (180 g)
- 2 cups water
- salt, to taste
- vegetable oil, for the skillet
- Mix together the teff and water in a bowl and cover with a dish towel. The batter will be the consistency of heavy cream.
- Leave at room temperature until it bubbles and has a slightly sour odor. This may take as long as 3 days, but overnight is often sufficient. Add a pinch or two of salt.
- Lightly oil a medium sized skillet–I prefer a 10 inch cast iron skillet. Heat over medium heat.
- Pour in enough batter to cover the bottom of the skillet–around ½ cup of batter will make a thin pancake in a 10-inch skillet. Use the bottom of a ladle or rotate the pan in gentle circles from the wrist to spread the batter. Injera is not supposed to be paper thin, so use a bit more batter than you would for crepes.
- Cook for about one minute until holes start to form on the surface, then cover the pan with a lid to steam the pancake. Cook for about 3 minutes, just until the edges pull away from the sides and the top is set. Only cook on one side. Remove the pancake from the skillet and allow to rest on a plate.
Wonderful with anything spicy, a delicious way to sop up thick stews.
Note: To aid in fermentation, a pinch of yeast and sugar can be added at the initial mixing stage. If during cooking, the bread is not spongy in texture and full of holes, you can add a little baking powder to achieve the desired texture.
- Mix together equal parts warm water and chickpea flour (labeled besan flour in Asian markets) and allow to ferment for a minimum of 30 minutes, but preferably seven hours or more. The batter should be the consistency of heavy cream.
- Place a 12-inch cast-iron skillet in the oven and heat to 450°. For every cup of flour add around 2 tablespoons olive oil and 1 teaspoon of salt. Fresh herbs, minced garlic and browned onions can all be added to the batter. When the pan is hot, pour 2 tablespoons of oil into it and swirl. Pour in the batter (around 2 cups–watch out, it will sizzle). Bake for 10 to 15 minutes, or until the pancake is firm and the edges set.
- Heat the broiler and brush the top of the pancake with additional olive oil. Set the pancake a few inches away from the broiler and cook just long enough to brown it in spots. Cut into wedges and serve hot or warm.
This makes a great pizza crust or serve in wedges to accompany cheese and olives for an appetizer.
Michael Ruhlman and “The Power of Ratios” is worth reading for insights on making crepes.
- 8 ounces eggs (about 4 large)
- 8 ounces milk (or liquid of your choice)
- 4 ounces flour (I have successfully used all buckwheat)
- salt, sugar, vanilla (optional and to taste)
- One method is to blend the flour and liquid (whey works well here) and allow to ferment at room temperature for a minimum of 7 hours. Then add eggs and salt or other optional ingredients. Otherwise whisk all ingredients together adding a pinch to ½ teaspoon of salt and let the batter rest uncovered at room temperature for 30 minutes or covered in the refrigerator for up to 1 day.
- Heat a skillet over medium-low heat. Gently wipe the surface of the skillet with oil or butter. Pour in just enough batter to lightly coat the bottom of the pan–by either gently rotating or lightly swirling with the bottom of a ladle.
- Allow it to cook untouched until it’s set and the edges are beginning to pull from the sides of the pan. Gently flip the crepe and cook the other side if you wish. Stack them a plate and lightly cover with a tea towel.
- Fill with sweet or savory fillings. Our favorite is plain thick Greek yogurt with homemade jam or honey and cinnamon.
Dosas–Indian rice and lentil crepes
The best, most comprehensive site for making dosas: http://www.veggiebelly.com/2011/03/perfect-dosa-recipe.html
- 2 cups medium grain rice
- ½ cup lentils (urad dal is preferred)
- ½ teaspoon methi seeds (fenugreek seeds)
- 1 teaspoon salt
- Place the rice in a large bowl. Place the dal and fenugreek seeds in another large bowl. Wash the rice with room temperature water. Drain out the water, and fill the bowl with more water, so that the water is about 2 inches above the rice.
- Do the same with the dal and fenugreek – wash, rinse, and fill with water. Let rice and dal soak for about 6 hours.
- The dal should now be swollen, and the rice will be easy to break with your fingers.
- Pour about 2 tablespoons of the dal soaking liquid into a wet grinder. Turn the grinder on. Then, using your hands, scoop the soaked dal, allowing excess water to drain back into the bowl. Add dal to the grinder, handfuls at a time. Grind until the dal is fluffy and silky smooth – about 15 minutes (grinding time will vary depending on the grinder and quantity of dal). You should have fluffy clouds of ground dal – think liquid marshmallows.
- Sprinkle a little soaking water into the grinder as and when needed, to move the batter along. Turn off grinder, and scoop the ground dal using your hands and put it into a large (4 quart) bowl.
- Now grind the rice (no need to wash the grinder). Add 1 cup of the rice soaking liquid into the grinder and turn it on. Add the rice to the grinder. The rice should be ground to a smooth, but ever so slightly gritty batter – about 20 minutes (will vary depending on the grinder and rice). Sprinkle water in the grinder as and when needed.
- Using your hands, scoop the rice batter into the bowl with the dal. Add salt, and stir gently using your hands. You should now have approximately 2 quarts of batter.
- Cover the bowl loosely, either with a large tea towel, or a lid. The lid should not be air tight.
- If you live in a warm climate leave the batter over night in a warm place (about 8 hours) to ferment. Ideal dosa idli batter fermentation temperature is around 90°F or 32°C.
- If you live in a cold climate, turn on the pilot light of your oven. (do not turn on your oven!). Place the batter bowl on the lowest rack, farthest away from the light. The light will give the batter enough warmth to ferment. Leave the bowl in the oven for about 10 hours for dosa batter to ferment. Sometimes, the batter may take up to 18 hours to ferment in colder climates.
- The fermented batter should be frothy, and almost doubled in volume. For this recipe, you should land up with at least 3 quarts of fermented batter.
- If the fermented batter is too thick, add a little water. For dosas, the batter must be of pouring consistency, but not runny.
- Heat a 9-inch nonstick skillet on high heat. Sprinkle a few drops of water on the skillet. The water should sizzle and evaporate away on the count of 4. This means the pan is hot enough to make dosas. Cut a small wedge from an onion. Stick a fork into the onion. Add a drop of vegetable oil to the hot pan, and spread the oil around, using the onion. (Just a drop of oil will do for a non-stick pan.)
- Now pour a ladle (1/4 cup) of batter onto the hot pan. Using very little pressure, swirl the ladle in concentric circles, to spread out the batter. When the batter is fully spread, spray or drizzle a few drops of vegetable oil all over the dosa. Cook on medium-high heat till the bottom side of the dosa becomes lightly brown.
- At this point, you can fold the dosa over in half, or roll it into rolls, and serve. (For extra crispy dosas, flip the dosa over, and lightly brown the other side).
- Taste your first dosa, and adjust salt in the batter if needed.
Sweet Potato Parathas
from “Sundays at the Moosewood Restaurant”
- ¾ cup cooked and mashed sweet potatoes
- 1 tablespoon oil or melted ghee
- ¼ teaspoon salt
- ¾ teaspoon cinnamon
- ½ cup whole wheat flour
- 1 to 1 ½ cups white flour, as needed
- oil or melted ghee for cooking
- In a medium bowl, combine the sweet potatoes, oil or ghee, salt, and cinnamon and mix well. Stir in all of the whole wheat flour and enough of the white flour to form a workable dough. Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead it, adding flour as necessary, until at least one cup of white flour has been incorporated. The dough will be sticky at first, so you may find it helpful to oil your hands before starting to knead. The dough should be kneaded for 5 to 10 minutes and should feel smooth and elastic when you are finished. Cover the dough with plastic wrap and set it aside to rest for at least 30 minutes (at this point the dough may be tightly wrapped in plastic and refrigerated for up to 3 days. Let the dough return to room temperature before attempting to work with it.)
- Cut the dough into quarters and then cut each quarter in half. Roll in your hands to form eight balls. On a lightly floured surface, roll each ball into a 6-inch circle. Brush the top of each circle with oil or melted ghee and fold in half. Brush the resulting half moon with oil or ghee and again fold it in half. Sprinkle lightly with flour and roll out to form a 6-inch triangle. Repeat the process with the remaining balls of dough.
- Heat a heavy frying pan or griddle on medium heat for 2 or 3 minutes. Place a paratha in the pan and cook for about 2 minutes or until brown flecks appear on the bottom of the bread. Brush the top with oil or ghee and turn over. Again cook until brown flecks appear on the bottom of the bread, brush the top with oil or ghee, and turn over. Cook for approximately one minute more and then remove it from the pan. The parathas may be kept warm in the oven until all of them are cooked.
Jenn Cloke, originally from Atlanta, has lived in Western North Carolina for since 2006 and wears her Appalachian mantle proudly. Jenn was the Communications Coordinator for Organic Growers School from 2012 to 2014. She and her family run a small farm at the foot of Cold Mountain.